What is Hindu calendar?
Nakshatra (constellation), date, number, yoga and day are used to make Hindu calendar or ‘Panchang’.
Hindu calendar is made by adopting (following) two types of methods- first depends on the movement of the moon around the earth (revolution) and second depends on the movement of the earth around the sun. On the first day of new year, festivals like- ‘Yugadi’ in Karnataka, ‘Gudhi padva’ in maharashtra, ‘Vishu’ in sea beach area of kerala and Karnataka, ‘Vaisaki’ in west bengal, ‘Vaisakhi’ in Punjab and different festivals like this are celebrated in other countries too. Chandraman yugadi is called for the followers of the moon and Swarnman yugadi is called for the followers of the sun.
Chaitra, Baishakha, Jyeshtha, Aashadh, Shrawan, Bhadrapad, Aashwin, Kartik, Margshish, Paush, Magha and Phalgun all are known as the 12 months of Chandra calendar.
Each of the months is divided in to two sections each of them have 14 to 16 days like-
- Shukla paksha- amavasya (no moon) to poornima (full moon)
- Krishna paksha- poornima (full moon) to amavasya (no moon).
March to April every year is known as one day chandraman yugadi. There are 12 months even in sun’s calendar like- Aries, Taurus, Gemini, Cancer, Leo, Virgo, Libra, Scorpio, Sagittarius, Capricorn, Aquarius and Pisces. Swarnman yugadi falls mostly on 14th February every year.
Other considerable facts like- date, day, constellation, number (11), yoga (27), etc. are also studied for making panchang. As we all know that there are total 7 days in a week which known as seven planets except Rahu and Ketu.
Like this, a year is also divided into two parts- Uttarayana and Dakshinayana. They are also very important for all the things. This is the reason why importance is given to north-east and south-east directions along with east direction. The sun is active for six months i.e. from 14 January to 15 July on north part of the earth every year and it is known as uttarayana while the remaining six months i.e. from 16 July to 14 January the sun is active on the south part of the earth, which is known as Dakshinayana. But according to English calendar, 21st December to 20th June is known as uttarayana and 21st June to 20th December is known as Dakshinayana. Day time is longer and night is shorter in uttarayana and just opposite of it in Dakshinayana.
Six seasons– There are six seasons according to Hindu calendar and all run for two months.
These six seasons are describing below-
|S.No.||Seasons||Chandra months||In English|
|1.||Spring||Chitra to Baishakh||March to May|
|2.||Summer||Jyeshtha to Aashadha||May to July|
|3.||Rainy||Shrawan to Bhadrapad||July to September|
|4.||Autumn||Ashwin to Kartik||September to November|
|5.||Cold season||Margshish to Paush||November to January|
|6.||Winter||Magha to Phalgun||January to March|
As like there is six seasons as there are four weathers in a year, which has been described below-
|1.||Spring||21st March to 21st June|
|2.||Summer||21st June to 22nd September|
|3.||Autumn||22nd September to 22nd December|
|4.||Winter||22nd December to 21st March|
Date– The distance between the sun and the moon has been divided in three sections, because these are known as date. When all they are appear in a straight line, it is known as new Chandra day and when they are become separate from each other, it is known as full Chandra day. All the dates are at 12° from each other. There are total 15 dates in both shukla paksha and Krishna paksha.
Shukla paksha– all these from amawasya (no moon) to poornima (full moon)- pratipada (1st), dwitiya (2nd), tritiya (3rd), chaturtha (4th), panchami (5th), shashthi (6th), saptmi (7th), ashthami (8th), navami (9th), dashami (10th), ekadashi (11th), dwadashi (12th), tryodashi (13th) and poornima (full moon), etc. are located at 12° at each other.
Krishnapaksha– All these from poornima (full moon) to amawasya (no moon) – pratipada (1st), dwitiya (2nd), tritiya (3rd), chaturtha (4th), panchami (5th), shashthi (6th), saptmi (7th), ashthami (8th), navami (9th), dashami (10th), ekadashi (11th), dwadashi (12th), tryodashi (13th) and poornima (full moon), etc. are located at 12° at each other.
From beginning of constructing house to entering ceremony of it, birth chart is also required along with panchang (Hindu calendar) for finding out auspicious moment. One, who has no knowledge about it properly, can not find out its solutions properly. So, he/she should consult any expert pandit (Brahmin) for this purpose.
Yoga– yoga is made by the effect of the sun, moon and starts after coming them in a particular position. These are 27 in numbers, which are as follow-
Karan (number) – The effect of a particular position of date, day, constellation (group of stars), etc. is known as number (karan). There are two numbers (karans) in a date; means there are total sixty karans in 30 days of month. Normally, there are 11 karans-
Hindu year (Savantsar) – Hindu’s eight years are as follow-
|1. Prabhav||2. Vibhav||3. Shukla||4. Pramudatta|
|5. Pragyahatpati||6. Angiras||7. Shrimukha||8. Bhav|
|9. Yuv||10. Dhatu||11. Hevilambi||12. Vilambi|
|13. Vikari||14. Sharvari||15. Plav||16. Shubhakritu|
|17. Shobhakritu||18. Krodhi||19. Vishvavasu||20. Prabhav|
|21. Ishwar||22. Bahudhanya||23. pramadi||24. Vikram|
|25. Vishu||26. Chitrabhanu||27. Shvabhanu||28. Parthivi|
|29. Vyavya||30. Sarvjitu||31. Sarvadhari||32. Tarna|
|33. Virodhi||34. Vikriti||35. Khar||36. Nandan|
|37. Vijay||38. Jay||39. Manmath||40. Durmukhi|
|41. Plawang||42. Keelak||43. Somya||44. Sadharan|
|45. Virodhikrit||46. Paridhavi||47. Pramadikha||48. Anand|
|49. Rakshas||50. Nal||51. Pingal||52. Kalyukti|
|53. Siddharthi||54. Raudri||55. Durmati||56. Rudhirodhagari|
|57. Dudunbhi||58. Raktakshi||59. Krodhan||60. Akshay|