Hindu Calendar

Hindu calendar

What is Hindu calendar?

Nakshatra (constellation), date, number, yoga and day are used to make Hindu calendar or ‘Panchang’.

Hindu calendar is made by adopting (following) two types of methods- first depends on the movement of the moon around the earth (revolution) and second depends on the movement of the earth around the sun. On the first day of new year, festivals like- ‘Yugadi’ in Karnataka, ‘Gudhi padva’ in maharashtra, ‘Vishu’ in sea beach area of kerala and Karnataka, ‘Vaisaki’ in west bengal, ‘Vaisakhi’ in Punjab and different festivals like this are celebrated in other countries too. Chandraman yugadi is called for the followers of the moon and Swarnman yugadi is called for the followers of the sun.

Chaitra, Baishakha, Jyeshtha, Aashadh, Shrawan, Bhadrapad, Aashwin, Kartik, Margshish, Paush, Magha and Phalgun all are known as the 12 months of Chandra calendar.

Each of the months is divided in to two sections each of them have 14 to 16 days like-

  • Shukla paksha- amavasya (no moon) to poornima (full moon)
  • Krishna paksha- poornima (full moon) to amavasya (no moon).

March to April every year is known as one day chandraman yugadi. There are 12 months even in sun’s calendar like- Aries, Taurus, Gemini, Cancer, Leo, Virgo, Libra, Scorpio, Sagittarius, Capricorn, Aquarius and Pisces. Swarnman yugadi falls mostly on 14th February every year.

Other considerable facts like- date, day, constellation, number (11), yoga (27), etc. are also studied for making panchang. As we all know that there are total 7 days in a week which known as seven planets except Rahu and Ketu.

Like this, a year is also divided into two parts- Uttarayana and Dakshinayana. They are also very important for all the things. This is the reason why importance is given to north-east and south-east directions along with east direction. The sun is active for six months i.e. from 14 January to 15 July on north part of the earth every year and it is known as uttarayana while the remaining six months i.e. from 16 July to 14 January the sun is active on the south part of the earth, which is known as Dakshinayana. But according to English calendar, 21st December to 20th June is known as uttarayana and 21st June to 20th December is known as Dakshinayana. Day time is longer and night is shorter in uttarayana and just opposite of it in Dakshinayana.

Six seasons– There are six seasons according to Hindu calendar and all run for two months.

These six seasons are describing below-

S.No. Seasons Chandra months In English
1. Spring Chitra to Baishakh March to May
2. Summer Jyeshtha to Aashadha May to July
3. Rainy Shrawan to Bhadrapad July to September
4. Autumn Ashwin to Kartik September to November
5. Cold season Margshish to Paush November to January
6. Winter Magha to Phalgun January to March

 As like there is six seasons as there are four weathers in a year, which has been described below-

S.No. Weather In English
1. Spring 21st March to 21st June
2. Summer 21st June to 22nd September
3. Autumn 22nd September to 22nd December
4. Winter 22nd December to 21st March

 Date– The distance between the sun and the moon has been divided in three sections, because these are known as date. When all they are appear in a straight line, it is known as new Chandra day and when they are become separate from each other, it is known as full Chandra day. All the dates are at 12° from each other. There are total 15 dates in both shukla paksha and Krishna paksha.

Shukla paksha– all these from amawasya (no moon) to poornima (full moon)- pratipada (1st), dwitiya (2nd), tritiya (3rd), chaturtha (4th), panchami (5th), shashthi (6th), saptmi (7th), ashthami (8th), navami (9th), dashami (10th), ekadashi (11th), dwadashi (12th), tryodashi (13th) and poornima (full moon), etc. are located at 12° at each other.

Krishnapaksha– All these from poornima (full moon) to amawasya (no moon) – pratipada (1st), dwitiya (2nd), tritiya (3rd), chaturtha (4th), panchami (5th), shashthi (6th), saptmi (7th), ashthami (8th), navami (9th), dashami (10th), ekadashi (11th), dwadashi (12th), tryodashi (13th) and poornima (full moon), etc. are located at 12° at each other.

From beginning of constructing house to entering ceremony of it, birth chart is also required along with panchang (Hindu calendar) for finding out auspicious moment. One, who has no knowledge about it properly, can not find out its solutions properly. So, he/she should consult any expert pandit (Brahmin) for this purpose.   

Yoga– yoga is made by the effect of the sun, moon and starts after coming them in a particular position. These are 27 in numbers, which are as follow-

1. Vishkambha 15. Vraja
2. Preeti 16. Siddhi
3. Aayushmana 17. Vyatipat
4. Saubhagya 18. Variyan
5. Shobhana 19. Paridha
6. Atigand 20. Shiv
7. Sukarma 21. Siddha
8. Ghriti 22. Sadhya
9. Shool 23. Shubha
10. Gand 24. Shukla
11. Vridhi 25. Brahma
12. dhru 26. Endra
13. Vyaghat 27. vaidhriti
14. Harshan

Karan (number) – The effect of a particular position of date, day, constellation (group of stars), etc. is known as number (karan). There are two numbers (karans) in a date; means there are total sixty karans in 30 days of month. Normally, there are 11 karans-

1. Bav 7. Vishti (bhadra)
2. Balav 8. Shakuni
3. Kaulav 9. Chatushmad
4. Taitul 10. Nag
5. Garaj 11. Kinstughana
6. Vanij

Hindu year (Savantsar) – Hindu’s eight years are as follow-

1. Prabhav 2. Vibhav 3. Shukla 4. Pramudatta
5. Pragyahatpati 6. Angiras 7. Shrimukha 8. Bhav
9. Yuv 10. Dhatu 11. Hevilambi 12. Vilambi
13. Vikari 14. Sharvari 15. Plav 16. Shubhakritu
17. Shobhakritu 18. Krodhi 19. Vishvavasu 20. Prabhav
21. Ishwar 22. Bahudhanya 23. pramadi 24. Vikram
25. Vishu 26. Chitrabhanu 27. Shvabhanu 28. Parthivi
29. Vyavya 30. Sarvjitu 31. Sarvadhari 32. Tarna
33. Virodhi 34. Vikriti 35. Khar 36. Nandan
37. Vijay 38. Jay 39. Manmath 40. Durmukhi
41. Plawang 42. Keelak 43. Somya 44. Sadharan
45. Virodhikrit 46. Paridhavi 47. Pramadikha 48. Anand
49. Rakshas 50. Nal 51. Pingal 52. Kalyukti
53. Siddharthi 54. Raudri 55. Durmati 56. Rudhirodhagari
57. Dudunbhi 58. Raktakshi 59. Krodhan 60. Akshay

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