Vedic Vastu Shastra in Rigveda
Rigveda is considered as the oldest granth (book) of Indian literature. Different types of information related to sthaptya are found in it. Through it, we know that Indian people had good knowledge about constructing house before 2nd century. In addition of Rigveda, such types of information are also found in Yajur-veda, Sam-Veda and Artha-veda as well as in Vedic literature which describe about different parts of sthaptya. Mostly the description about constructing house found in Rigveda and Artha-veda had been going on in India.
Vedic Sastu for home
In Vedic time, there were three important parts of house- first was the main gate or door of house including front courtyard too. The Second was considered as the sitting room that would be, later, called as assembly hall. This is the room which was started to use as welcome the guest. The third one was known as wife room which was also called as antahpur. Aryan people were use a reserved room for burning fire. It was considered as very essential for the works of vihit shrot. This pure and holy place is considered as the place of Gods. Also after Vedic age, this room has been using as pooja room.
It is known about it by Vedic literature that there was simplicity in the construction of house in Vedic age. The life of people was very simple. So, there was no place for showiness without any reason in residential house. Vedic representation was present in Vedic Aryans, it is known through Rigveda and Vedic literature.
In Rigveda (7, 33, 13), it has been described about the origin of two saints named ‘Maan’ and ‘Vashishtha’ from pot. It has been described about the origin of saint named ‘Agastya’. Later, experts of Vaastu shaastra have accepted Agastua as the master of vaastu science. Maan means measuring.
It has been described about God named ‘Vaastospati’ on many places inside Rigveda. It is very essential for calling this God before starting the construction of house. At a place (8, 17, 14), Vaastospati and Indra and another place (5, 14, 8), Vaastospati and twashtra have been called as a cleaver mechanic.
While constructing any type of house, mostly bamboos and other woods were used. These things were not available easily. Grass, straws and leaves were also used instead of wood. After that, bricks had been started to use in the construction of house. In Rigveda, information about Ashwamayi and Ayasi durgo (forts) is also found. It tells that Aryans had knowledge about the use of stones and metals for constructing forts.
Gram (Village) – This type of word is found more in Rigveda and other Vedic literature. The gram represents village at this time. Few Vedic villages were established at distances and were connected with one another through paths or roads. Mostly, gram is known as opened. While constructing or establishing village, mostly about pure and fresh water and air were kept in the mind. Big villages were known as great villages. According to hewel, these villages are rectangular in shape and each had also 1-1 gate or door around them. Few scholars believe also that a fence of wood was also made around Vedic villages, which is also found around Buddha or Jain temples. One or more doors were also fitted around this fence.
Pur– This word has been used on many places in Rigveda and Vedic literature. In Sanskrit literature, this word has been used in the sense of town. This word (pur) was also used for durg (fort) in Vedic literature. In Rigveda, it has been also described to construct fence on pur. In this way, it can be imagined that pur would be in great numbers at that time. In the beginning, this pur would be made with clay (soil).
It is also imagined that this type of durg would be inside the villages or around them. It is not found any type of colonies inside these purs. Such type of purs was also made for the protection from flood and outer attacks. At one place, the word ‘Shardi’ was used as adjective for pur. It was used especially for the protection of pur from outer attacks in winter season.
It has been also described about purs having walls in Rigveda. Many of them were found as big in shape. It has been described about a pur as wide or expanded in Rigveda. In Rigveda, it has been described about purs made with stones. In few of them, metal was also used. In Baluchistan, sindha and Punjab, many buildings of hadappa have been found through which, clear way of using stones have been found. On one of them, pur made with animals has been also described.
The protective walls of towns have come in existence by digging on many old towns and places of India. By digging on very famous historical place named aran in sagar district of Madhya Pradesh, proofs about establishing towns in about 1900 B.C. have been found. A protective wall surrounded this district from three sides had been made of black yellow strong soil. On the fourth side, river named ‘Bagair’ was act as protective line. Ancient protective wall was about 3 meter wide, later the width of this wall had been measured about 46.97m. The height of this wall had been found about 6.41m. At a distance of about 16.47m, there was a ditch in which the water of river ‘Bagair’ was filled all the time. The width and depth of this ditch had been measured as 36.60 and 5.49 respectively.
In district named ‘Khargon’ of Madhya Pradesh had been dug from 1952 to 1957. By digging it, important information about tamrashayugin civilization was found. This civilization went on developing on both the banks of Narmada from 1000 B.C. to 1500 B.C. The people of this civilization were lived in hut-like house made of clay. Such types of houses were square, round or rectangular in shape. Their roofs were clean completely. Their walls and roofs were made of tough soil mixed with grass. For supporting these roofs, bamboos were used. Their walls were painted with white soil or lime. For making the floors of such houses, lime and yellow soil were used as well as lime was also painted on fire-places.
House– in Rigveda, the word ‘Griha’ has been used in the sense of residence place or house. This type of word has been also used in Artha-veda and the granthas (books) of pandit. Words like- dam, pasatya and hamarya have been also used in the sense of house and family property related to it.
In ancient time, there were many rooms in few houses. For the protection of houses, those rooms were closed. The thought about making the houses as beautiful and clean was similar to Vedic time. In Artha-veda, house has been represented by decorated she-elephant on one place. Like the back of she-elephant, the roofs of old houses were known as slopping. On the inner and outer walls of these houses, many pictures of different types were decorated.
In Rigveda, there are about 30 words have been used for residential houses and their different parts. The word ‘Chhardi’ has been used on many places, which is related to house’s roofs.
In ancient time, few houses were constructed as bigger as big family or joint family could life in them. Many of them were constructed in many floors. The place for living animals was also constructed connected with main house or near it. Sometimes, there was a place for living domestic animals in wide courtyard. One part of the house was reserved for fire. In Artha-veda, rooms for living women have been also described.
In ancient time, mostly soil (clay), stone, wood and bamboos were used for constructing house. The base of the house was made very strong. First of all, clean bamboos were spread on the wall as zigzag position and then thorny or torn bamboo were kept on it. After that, these bamboos were tied tightly with ropes so that they could not be move even after spreading on roof. This spreading (bed) of bamboos was also known as ayam. Grasses and leaves were spread on this bed of bamboos. These surfaces were also known as varhan. The surface of the splinters of bamboos was fitted on this bed. They were also tied tightly. In this way, the roof of bamboos was completed. For controlling big roofs of houses, thick logs were fitted from under.