Memory power is considered such a notebook which always remains in your pocket.
Memory is a mental process in which a person tries to identify things by recalling his remembered things. According to some scientists, any kind of information is stored by our brain in the form of memory traces. Some other scientists say that memory is a creative process and several kinds of changes come in the memory that has been stored in our brain.
According to famous scientists, recalling anything at present that was learned in past is called memory. Several tests were done to find out what types of chemical changes come in our brain. A scientist presented a conclusion by his test done on a cat that the rays of the brain are not connected with any special part of the brain but they are connected with many tracts at the time of recalling anything. Another scientist reached a decision after the test done with the help of his colleagues. He described that several chemical changes come in the ribonucleic acid of the related cells of the nerve in the process recalling facts.
The memory of a person can not be called a single stage because there are different kinds of stages of the memory of a person. Each stage is connected with the second stage but has its own identity.
There are three kinds of memories according to scientists-
Sensory memory is considered the initial stage of our memory. Information stays here for a little time and the information disappears after a few seconds. That is why it is called sensory memory.
Short-term memory is considered the second stage. Here any kind of information stays only for thirty seconds. For example, a person looks the number of a person from the telephone directory and he dials that telephone number but the phone remains unconnected. He finds that he has forgotten the number when he tries to redial the phone and he has to look at the phone number again in the telephone directory. Similarly, a person meets a person on the first time at any party and he hears his name and shakes hand with him but he forgets his name soon. Above mentioned both examples are examples of short-term memory.
Long-term memory is considered the third stage of memory. This stage is a recall or recognition of any information or incident of experience which a person recalls after many minutes or many hours or many days or many years. If a person comes out from his home after eating pizza and he informs his friend about it. A student tells the name of his science teacher to his mother after returning back from the back or a person tells his childhood experience. Here it is clear that in this case long-term memory is being used. The period of long-term memory is from some minutes to many years.
The primary bases of long-term memory are a rehearsal and the information stored in the short-term memory because a person tries to store any kind of information or fact in long-term memory by rehearsal. There are of two types of this kind of rehearsal-maintenance rehearsal and the second is the elaborate rehearsal. Maintenance rehearsal is used to sustain the short-term memory. Example-a person rehearses the telephone number in his mind for remembering but he forgets the number after some time.
Generally, such kind of rehearse is reflex. The base of long-term memory does not take place by such kind of rehearse. For it, elaborate rehearsal is effective. In such kind of rehearsal, a person rehearses the information stored in short-term memory in its meaning or in the images of association. Such kind of rehearsal makes the base of long-term memory.
Information is stored in the memory in the form of encoding. The first type of encoding is in sensory images and the second type of encoding is in the form of semantics. Consequently, there are two types of long-term memory- the First type of memory and the second is of knowledge. If we read a newspaper, we remember anything less or more in that vocabulary. Twig called it episodic memory in 1972.
Personal experiences of a person come in the episodic memory. These memories are compacted with time and place. In it, autobiographical incidents are included. On the contrary, long-term memory is semantic. In semantic memory, knowledge related to the world is present in the mind or brain of a person. In it, vocabulary and the way of their use are included in it. Semantic memory is a store of incidents, rule, principles in your and strategies of a person.
Why do we forget?
Remembering and forgetting are two sides of one coin. A person cannot store the complete knowledge what he gains and he is not able in recalling the complete knowledge what he stores in his memory. So, the meaning of amnesia is unsuccessfulness in absorbing knowledge in the brain or recalling the information stored in the memory.
Probably, Abinghas started practical study in the field of forgetfulness. According to him, forgetfulness is an inactive mental process. On the base of studies, he describes that the more time is in recalling the stored memory, the more time will be in forgetting anything.
- After20 minutes, we forget 47 percent portion of the knowledge we remembered.
- After60 percent, we forget 53 percent portion of the knowledge what was membered.
- After nine hours, we forget 56 percent portion of the knowledge what we stored in our memory.
- After24 hours, we forget 66 percent portion of the knowledge remembered by us.
- After48 hours, we forget about 72 percent portion of the knowledge remembered by us.
- After one week, we forget 75 percent portion of the knowledge remembered by us.
- After one month, we forget 79 percent portion of the knowledge remembered by us.
So, we can say on the base of scientific bases that we forget 66 percent portion of the knowledge remembered by us in a day. Now, it is clear here that only 34 percent portion of the knowledge remains in our brain after one day.
- A person should study the knowledge again and again if he wants to avoid from amnesia.
- A person forgets less to his thoughts, diagrams and line diagrams. So, remember the knowledge which is being learned by you in the form of thoughts, imagination, diagrams and line diagram.
- Habit Memory:
- A work which is done regularly by a person becomes his habit. For example, a member of the telephone exchange has many numbers of the city on his fingertips not in his memory because he uses them many times daily. A computer typist is not able in telling the spelling of a word as English but he can type the spelling without error. Isn’t a thing strange? In this way, you will become aware that if you want to remember anything permanently, you can get proficiency in it by doing that work again and again.
- Photo Graphic Memory:
- It has been proved true scientifically that all the children have photographic memory. Any scene or incident is imprinteda in their mind like a photo camera. Ask 8-10years old child to narrate the story of a movie seen by him recently. When the child is narrating the story, you will observe that the facial expressions of the child are changing.
- You will be astonished by seeing the expressions of the child that the facial expressions of the child are changing continuously while narrating the story. It appears as if the movie is being played before him at present. Pay too much attention to the child when he is describing any fighting scene. The child moves his hands and feet like the hero of the movie. But as the child grows, the photographic memory starts to weaken slowly or it can also be said that a kind of weakness comes in his imagination power because of the concentration on the language, mathematic and sports.
Now, start to remember about your childhood. You will feel that you have many memories of the children even now. It appears that a movie of your childhood memories is being played and project of the movie of childhood is being played in your brain. You know many sad, heart-piercing, frightening, hairraising and fearful scenes of childhood. Why does it happen? It happens because above-mentioned sentiments are more effective and powerful. The hand of a dead person which had been cut before some time keeps on appearing.